Monday, August 24, 2020
Should Internet Have A Tax? In 1998, retailers sold about $8 billion merchandise and enterprises to purchasers over the Internet, or on-line, while business to business online trade was esteemed at an expected $17 billion. Business week by week magazine (June 22, 1998) anticipated that Internet trade would build the U.S. total national output (GPD) by between $10 billion and $20 billion every year by 2002. They contend that impressive new Internet charges, in any event during the following not many years, would hinder the Internet's development and trick an area of the economy that is as of now prospering. For the time being industry pioneers state it is critical to assemble purchaser trust in the Internet by ceasing from forcing charges or other administrative obstructions that may prevent individuals from shopping on line. Web retailers must charge a business charge just if the organization has a physical nearness, for example, a distribution center or an office, in the state where the client is purchasing th e thing. Something else, organizations don't need to add the business duty to the price tag. In 1997, Sen. Ron Wyden brought the enactment that formed into the Internet Tax Freedom Act. The ITFA required a ban of around six years on the tax collection from Internet exchanges, access, or interchanges. Wyden considered the ban a break period that would offer the Internet the chance to keep on developing. The objective of the enactment was to give administrators and Internet industry time to make sense of a national tax collection arrangement. Numerous organizations, he says, would be frightened off from the Internet in the event that they were troubled with the obligation of checking and upholding a shrubbery of clashing deals charges forced by different states and districts. To be sure the potential loss of duty income for states and regions is perhaps the greatest concern. In contrast to the government, which doesn't force a business charge, states are vigorously reliant on deals expenses to raise incomes. Deals charges contain 49% of assessment incomes gathered by the states, while state personal expenses include just 33%, as per the government insights. Pundits of the ITFA state that if states regions are not allowed to gather burdens on Internet exchanges, they could lose genuinely necessary income that helps pay for taxpayer supported organizations, for example, parkway development and government funded training. Others state that not gathering deals charge from the Internet is inalienably unfair since organizations that don't participate in electronic trade should at present charge deals charges. It is in a general sense unreasonable that Main Street retailers ought to be required to gather a business charge while Internet and mail request merchant s can sell similar products and not be required to gather a business charge, contends Utah Gov. Michael Leavitt. When customers and organizations become acclimated with tax-exempt shopping on the Internet, there might be a reaction against endeavors to force deals charges when the ban closes. Government ought to force a duty on all things sold over the Internet. The most straightforward and least demanding to actualize, would be a level rate that applies to all states. I feel that if there is no assessment gathered from these deals, each state will begin to experience the ill effects of lose of income that helps pay for a portion of life's necessities, for example, streets, training, and law authorization. I believe that Congress realized that there was an issue and by putting a ban, it would give them future time up with certain thoughts. Be that as it may, when they think of thoughts it will be to late. On the off chance that they do implement an expense on Internet deals, individuals will either pay it or begin returning to Main Street organizations, at that point we have an issue since Internet will no longer have a similar deal volume. On the off chance that they don't implement a duty, I feel that the Main Street organizations will either close their entryways or go to the Internet for their deals. In the last occasion they will most likely despite everything shut their entryways and move to a place of business. Why have a colossal store that they no longer need when they can run everything from a PC. I figure government should put a duty on Internet deals. Reference index References Demure, Peter. You Ain't Seen Nothin' Yet. Business Week (June 22, 1998) p. 130
Posted by India Shifflett at 11:45 AM
Saturday, August 22, 2020
The utilization of music is by all accounts a decent method of operationalising the IV the same number of individuals do figure out how to the sound of music so thusly the contrast between the music and no music condition ought to be stamped. Additionally, getting the members to record the words is a decent method of estimating the DV as it implies it is anything but difficult to gather and examine the data.Ã The study itself was very basic and it appeared to gauge what impacts music has on learning. The autonomous variable was controlled so that it was hard for there to be at any rate the outcomes could have been influenced essentially. Additionally in light of the fact that the estimation strategy was extremely straightforward there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a possibility that the outcomes could be deciphered in the incorrect manner. As the examination was a research center test it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have as high legitimacy as a field test. In spite of the fact that the members were not in a peculiar domain, the way that they realized they were being examined may bring down the biological legitimacy of the study.Ã Leading on from the way that the investigation may have terrible environmental legitimacy, there is likewise the issue of the examination having awful member reactivity. Seeing as they probably am aware they are being examined and they realize they need to gain proficiency with the rundown of words given to them, they may invest significantly more energy than they regularly would in their regular daily existence. There is the factor of social attractive quality and how a few members may purposely attempt to review less words. Improving ValidityÃ Although it would be extremely troublesome and costly it could be conceivable to take the examination outside the research center to build the biological legitimacy of the investigation. You could screen the members while they are learning for something at home and keeping in mind that they are playing their own music in their rooms. They could then be tried accidentally at school by one of their reachers.Ã However, regardless of whether these progressions were made, the outcomes would most likely despite everything remain the equivalent. It has been demonstrated before by various investigations done by various researchers that music helps when attempting to learn. This is the reason understudies are urged to tune in to silent music when amending for tests. These progressions would likewise help improve member reactivity on the off chance that they are concentrated in a natural situation. It would give them a conviction that all is good and the need to look Ã¢â¬ËcoolÃ¢â¬â¢ isn't required any longer and there is no additional compel put on them to learn in light of the fact that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the inclination they are being examined.Ã So, these progressions could really change the outcomes marginally if just with a couple of members. It may be discovered that there is higher review in the two conditions however yet the distinction may in any case remain the equivalent. ReliabilityÃ The study is anything but difficult to imitate as there is numerous references to different investigations like it. Likewise on the grounds that the examination is very basic in itself and exceptionally modest to do there are once in a while any issues in reproducing it for various purposes.Ã One conceivable frustrating variable was presented by the way that there were four specialists in the room at the hour of the investigation and they all knew the speculations. They may have attempted give the members help in reviewing the words by giving indications and pieces of information with the goal that the outcomes were increasingly definitive. This may have prompted temperamental correlations between conditions. As the investigation was a lab explore it implied the scientists had great power over the examination. The words that were picked were all unambiguous so the members would not have deciphered them in various manners. Likewise the test had been seriously normalized. The words were appeared on an over head projector so they were all taking a gander at something very similar when learning was occurring. Likewise the testing was finished in a similar room and simultaneously of day for each condition so the members were not feeling more drained in one condition than the other. Improving reliabilityÃ The just conceivable approach to improve unwavering quality was to downplay scientist contact or have an individual in the room that was ignorant of the speculation so they couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t adjust the examination in any capacity. This would be troublesome however on the grounds that once they are in the room it becomes very clear what the examination is about.Ã This could be controlled for by utilizing an outside regular citizen to be the one individual giving the members guidelines on what they need to do. There could be one individual picked for each condition with the goal that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t think about what the examination is about.Ã Even if these progressions increased the unwavering quality of the investigation the main distinction they may make to the outcomes is to diminish the distinctions found between the two conditions.
Posted by India Shifflett at 1:15 AM
Monday, July 20, 2020
Addiction, Dependence, and Tolerance to Pain Medication More in Addiction Alcohol Use Addictive Behaviors Drug Use Nicotine Use Coping and Recovery There is a difference between addiction, physical dependence, and tolerance to pain medication. It is imperative that each of us understands the difference. Many people with chronic pain conditions, including certain types of arthritis, are prescribed pain medication. Their medical condition dictates the need for such drugsâ"thats why it was prescribed as part of their treatment plan. Yet, if you pay attention to the news, people who are legitimately prescribed pain medication are being lumped in with the abusers. We can easily understand how that developed. After all, there is an epidemic of opioid abuse in the U.S. The drugs are said to be overprescribed. Add to that a celebrity dying from a drug overdose and the anti-drug campaigns hit a fever pitch. Each of the aforementioned problems is a legitimate concern. But, so is the disregard for people (e.g., chronic pain patients) who legitimately need pain medication to function and have some quality of life. Their plight cannot be minimized while the urgency of other matters is dealt with. This realization has largely been lost because too many people do not understand the difference between addiction, physical dependence, and tolerance. We cannot blur the lines between these three factors and expect to solve problems related to drug use and abuse. It is the first step we all must takeâ"understanding the terminology. What Is Addiction? The American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM), the American Academy of Pain Medicine (AAPM), and the American Pain Society (APS) recognize the following definition of addiction as it relates to the use of opioids for the treatment of pain: Addiction is a primary, chronic, neurobiological disease, with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. It is characterized by behaviors that include one or more of the following: impaired control over drug use, compulsive use, continued use despite harm, and craving. What Is Physical Dependence? The American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM), the American Academy of Pain Medicine (AAPM), and the American Pain Society (APS) recognize the following definition of physical dependence: Physical dependence is a state of adaptation that is manifested by a drug class specific withdrawal syndrome that can be produced by abrupt cessation, rapid dose reduction, decreasing blood level of the drug, and/or administration of an antagonist. What Is Tolerance? The American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM), the American Academy of Pain Medicine (AAPM), and the American Pain Society (APS) recognize the following definition of tolerance: Tolerance is a state of adaptation in which exposure to a drug induces changes that result in a diminution (i.e., diminishing or lessening) of one or more of the drugs effects over time. That said, most pain medicine and addiction specialists concur that chronic pain patients treated longterm with opioid drugs usually do develop physical dependence. Some patients will develop tolerance. But, usually, this group of patients does not develop an addiction. The actual risk of addiction is considered unknown and not predictable, but it is likely related to several factors, including genetic predisposition. Addiction itself is a primary chronic disease. Exposure to drugs is just one factor in its development. In fact, in most cases, exposure to drugs that can stimulate the brains reward center do not produce addiction. Characteristic Features and Behaviors Impaired control, craving, and compulsive use of the drug, as well as continued use of the drug despite negative physical, mental, or social consequences, are considered characteristic features of addiction. But, it can be a bit more complicated than simply recognizing the presence of those features. The same features could be related to inadequate pain relief. A doctor must be able to exercise their judgment and to discern between addiction and another cause. There are specific behaviors that point to the possibility of addiction. Those behaviors include: Not adhering to the prescribed schedule for the drugTaking more than one dose at a timeRepeated reports of stolen or lost drugsDoctor shopping (getting the drug from more than one doctor)Isolation (wanting time alone)Additionally using non-prescribed psychoactive drugsUsing pain medications for sedation, intoxication, to boost energy, or to lower anxiety levelsRequesting certain formulations or routes of administration of the drugAvoidance of or disinterest in non-opioid treatment options Addiction clearly is associated with potentially serious, even fatal, consequences. On the other hand, physical dependence is considered a normal response by the body to the chronic or continued use of certain medicationsâ"and not only opioid pain medications. For example, physical dependence can occur with corticosteroids, antidepressants, beta-blockers, as well as other medications not considered addictive. If drugs that may be associated with physical dependence are to be discontinued, the drug should be tapered to avoid withdrawal symptoms (e.g., prednisone tapering). Tolerance is even a bit trickier to understand. Tolerance may occur to the desired effect of the drug, but it can also occur to the undesired effects. Tolerance is also variable, occurring at different rates for different effects. Using opioids as an example, tolerance to the analgesic effects occur more slowly than to respiratory depression. Find Relief With the 9 Best Online Therapy Programs The Bottom Line Addiction is mostly a behavioral disorder, although it can overlap with physical dependence. Typically, addiction involves using the drug despite negative consequences, craving the drug even when not in physical pain, and using it for reasons other than the prescribed indication. Physical dependence is evident when someone develops a tolerance to a drug or if one would experience withdrawal symptoms from stopping the drug suddenly. Tolerance is present when the same dose does not garner the same result, thereby requiring higher doses to achieve the desired result. In and of itself, physical dependence does not mean that there is addiction, but it may accompany addiction when there is addiction.
Posted by India Shifflett at 9:58 AM
Thursday, May 21, 2020
Uchi (pronunciation) is a Japanese word meaning the inside or the interior. Learn more about its meaning and usage in Japanese below. Meaning the inside; the interior; house; within; between Japanese Characters Ã¥â â¦ (Ã£ â Ã£ ¡) Example Translation Dareka uchi ni iru?Ã¨ ª °Ã£ â¹Ã¥â â¦Ã£ «Ã£ âÃ£ââ¹ or in English: Is anybody home? Antonym Ã¥ ¤â" (Ã£ Ã£ ¨)
Posted by India Shifflett at 10:40 PM
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
CC: Dyspnea on exertion. History of Present Illness: Mr. Siegel is a very pleasant 80-year-old gentleman with end stage renal disease, previously on dialysis. He is here today for a formal evaluation of progressive dyspnea on exertion that has been worsening over the last six to eight months. He states that while sitting still, he has no shortness of breath. However, with any exertion at all, he does become winded very quickly. He does note some wheeze with exertion as well as cough. Interestingly there is some association with belching, which was evaluated by GI with a negative workup. He does complain of some chest tightness, as well. Per Ira Schwartz, s MD note, cardiology evaluation of his ongoing dyspnea is not primarily related to his heart. PMH: 1. History of cerebrovascular accident. 2. Hypertension. 3. Mild dementia. 4. Depression. 5. Progressive dyspnea on exertion. 6. Gastroesophageal reflux disease. 7. Chronic kidney disease, stage 4. 8. History of prostate cancer. 9. History of mitral valve regurgitation and cardiomyopathy with last recorded EF of 45-50%. Social History: The patient is married and lives in Portsmouth with his wife. He has three adult children who are healthy. Following formal education, he has worked as a mechanic as well as owning various business on the Seacoast. He currently does not smoke, however has greater than 60-pack-year history of smoking. He quit nearly 30 years ago. He does drink a glass of liquor
Posted by India Shifflett at 11:54 PM
William Manchester gained his notoriety in a series of biographies based upon the life of BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Through his writings in this work, Manchester made the colorful life of Churchill come alive as Manchester was able to capture an aspect and human aspect that had been missed by many of the other books on Churchill. The same is the case in this book: The World Lit Only by Fire. We will write a custom essay sample on William Manchester or any similar topic only for you Order Now The book is divided up into three separate and distinct parts. The first part deals with the typical medieval European mind and all the impediments to free thought and learning that the Catholic Church had over the individual in his opinion. However, out of that time, according to Manchester, there was still able to emerge, some of the greatest minds, along with some of the greatest contributions, the world has ever known in the field of science, religion and philosophy. Manchester makes a list of twenty eight such individuals. Some of these would include Martin Luther, Copernicus, Machiavelli, Erasmus and his hero and the man to whom he will constitute the last third of the book about: Magellan and the great importance that Manchester feels, was the contributions that he gave to medieval Europe. The second aspect of the book deals with the Catholic Church and its role of importance and dominance in Europe during that time as well as the corruption of the Popes and the rise of humanism as a direct response to the Catholic Church. The Europe of the Middle Ages is a very large subject to tackle and Manchester does his best to encompass all of the major themes of that time as he sees it, into one comprehensive study. As the title suggests, Manchester attempts to show the relationship between the Medieval Mind and how it evolves into the Renaissance. This occurs through the evolution of religious thought into a more modern day aspect, a complete look at education and philosophy with major contributions to these fields occurring at this time along with the successes in exploration. However, this transformation would not occur overnight. At the beginning of the section entitled Ã¢â¬Å"The Medieval MindÃ¢â¬ Manchester states that the age is plagued with the lasting effects of The Black Death, famine, illiteracy and common daily violence surrounding the courts of Europe. ManchesterÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of the Medieval Mind also comes from the influence that the church has on almost every aspect of society, an influence that Manchester feels served as an impediment to learning. The example of Saint Bernard Clairvaux is given when he states that: Ã¢â¬Å"the pursuit of knowledge, unless sanctified by a holy missionÃ¢â¬ ¦ Is a pagan act, and therefore vile.Ã¢â¬  The medieval man or woman was left with nothing else than to contemplate GodÃ¢â¬â¢s wrath and displeasure at their sin. Manchester stated that the only form of society that a typical man or woman felt was what was offered to them by the church. It is then that Manchester tackles The Reformation. In this, he credits both Erasmus, a moderate on issues of religion and which was ahead of his time in Christian thought and tolerance for other versions of Christian Faith, and Martin Luther, who took the Catholic Church head on and did all that he could to show the corruption of the church and dedicated his life to the education of the people. Due to the fact that the masses were not able and/or not allowed to learn how to read, the version of Christianity that was offered to the typical parishioner was typically void of Biblical truth in favor of Catholic Church doctrine which were sometimes in direct conflict with Biblical truths. Manchester goes into detail about the corruption of the church being allowed to flourish, due in part, to the masses inability to read and to know that what was being taught to them was not entirely true. In response to Pope Leo X who was in need of obtaining a large amount of revenue in order to finish the Basicilla at St. PeterÃ¢â¬â¢s, allowed Johan Tetzel to sell indulgences which offered eternal salvation to anyone willing to pay for it, Luther became outraged and sought to attack, possibly not the church as a whole, but this doctrine which was completely in conflict with Romans 1:17 which said that the righteous shall live by faith. The resistance that Luther offered to the Catholic Church eventually turned into the Protestant Reformation and as a result, there are more than 650 million Christians of a Protestant section. Another in the chief contributions that Luther gives to his German people, according to Manchester, is the completion of a German language Bible. In order to complete this, Luther had to be hidden away in a tower out of fear of retribution which would lead to death by agents of the Catholic Church, set on suppressing this which they saw the translation as well as the attacks that Luther made in response to the Catholic Church to be vile and wicked. Manchester, with regard to The Reformation, sees the entire process as being avoidable. Manchester sees the corrupt Popes during that time as well as the rigid rules that were put in place by the Catholic Church as being not only unnecessary, but also doing much to incite the masses against the church once an antagonist, such as Luther comes onto the world stage. However, since it did happen, Manchester sees The Reformation as not only a split between the church but also in history as much of Europe could now be split into one of two groups: persons belonging to the Medieval Mindset of superstition and absolute religious adherence, or a new consensus that allowed for the emergence of Copernicus and Galileo and above all in the mind of Manchester, the explorer Magellan. Manchester, in a continuation of his degradation of the Popes of this age, believes that their behaviors not only led to the religious reformation but also to the rise of the humanists. Ã¢â¬Å"HumanismÃ¢â¬ ¦ led to the greatest threat the church had ever faced.Ã¢â¬  The new inventions and ideas brought on my men like Da Vinci and Copernicus, according to Manchester, put into question Ã¢â¬Å" the certitude that knowledge had been forever fixed by God.Ã¢â¬  The assertions by Copernicus as well as Galileo, brought into question the whole of idea of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s omnipotence. Despite the fact that nowhere in The Bible does it claim that the sun revolves around the earth, since the Catholic Church asserted that this was the case and since the church had placed such a stronghold over the minds of the people, any blow to The Catholic Church and their faulty logic, also bought into question, the validity of Christianity as a whole. As a result, since some felt that God could not be trusted and that the inability to see him made the case for faith even harder, the only other logical source was to become a humanist and to believe in the capabilities of man since that is easier to see and to trust in the minds of the faithless. The corruption of the Catholic Church at that time, coupled with the inventions of Galileo and Copernicus, along with the huge popularity of Luther and Erasmus, a more secular and humanistic world view seemed to emerge and as a result, helped usher in the influence of The Renaissance. This brings us to the last section of the book which Manchester has entitled Ã¢â¬Å"One Man Alone.Ã¢â¬ A full 1/3 of the book is filled with the actions of the explorer Magellan and how Manchester gives a glowing review to the man and his accomplishments. According to Manchester, MagellanÃ¢â¬â¢s circumnavigation of the globe Ã¢â¬Å"was the crowning triumph of the age, the final decisive blow to the past.Ã¢â¬ Manchester includes this accomplishment as not only the greatest of the Middle Ages but also as part of a bigger picture: the religious revolution brought on by Luther and to a lesser but still important degree, Erasmus, the increase of secular power that Copernicus brought on with his achievements towards science. The majority of this section is a glowing review of Magellan and it seems to be, as one critic said: Ã¢â¬Å" a hero worship of the man.Ã¢â¬ Ã Of all the people of importance thatÃ contributed to Medieval society, Manchester makes a list of the twenty eight most important people. Some of these include Luther, Copernicus and Erasmus. The man that is seated on the top of this list of notables is Magellan. Manchester regards Magellan as Ã¢â¬Å" the linchpin for the men of the Renaissance.Ã¢â¬  Manchester does not go into detail concerning what he means by this but rather gives a general review of the age which included both high and low culture. Manchester praises MagellanÃ¢â¬â¢s handling of the mutiny aboard ship, overlooks his distance miscalculations and refers to Magellan as the eraÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest hero. In this hero worship of Magellan, Manchester seems to overemphasize the importance of Magellan and ignored the explorations of others. However, for Manchester, Magellan is the quintessential definition of what a hero is. Ã¢â¬Å"The hero acts alone, without encouragement, relying solely on conviction and his own inner resources.Ã¢â¬  For Manchester, Magellan has always come to define such ideals. ManchesterÃ¢â¬â¢s ultimate argument is that MagellanÃ¢â¬â¢s voyage is directly connected to the shattering of what he had come to define throughout his book, as Ã¢â¬Å"The Medieval Mind.Ã¢â¬ That is to mean, in ManchesterÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion, a world that is ruled by superstitions as well as not only the corrupt Catholic Church but seemingly, most or all organized religions combined. Many reviews of ManchesterÃ¢â¬â¢s book, The World Lit Only by Fire, does not contain a scholarly opinion of the book as ManchesterÃ¢â¬â¢s telling of the events and conclusions to those events do not seem to be objective. There is seen within the pages of The World Lit Only by Fire, a great deal of biases, anecdotes and humor that seems out of place in a scholarly work of history. Yet, the book, for fans of Manchester as well as those interested in a fascinating read, will find his book, advantageous to that endeavor. A World Lit Only By Fire is an informative read, yet as its purpose does not possess educational intentions, it tends to include humor, perspectives, biases, and anecdotes that readers may consider not to be objective. In what was supposed to be a forward on a friendÃ¢â¬â¢s book about Magellan, is turned into a separate work on the Middle Ages and all that is occurring at that time. Manchester gives a less than glowing opinion of the Catholic Church, from the Popes all the way down to the nuns and places full blame upon the corruption and the questioning of there ever being the need for a Reformation in the first place, if The Catholic Church had remained pure and free from corruption. However, The Middle Ages also saw the rise of the humanists which placed their faith in what they could see rather than in what they wanted to see or were told to see by a dominating force as in the form of the Catholic Church. The achievements of Copernicus, Da Vinci and Magellan helped to usher in the rise of scientific thought that was seen to a great degree in The Renaissance that was to follow the days and events that are portrayed in ManchesterÃ¢â¬â¢s book. A newly educated class comes out of the Middle Ages which will turn into the humanists. And to an alarming extent, compared to their ancestors from the region, become disillusioned about religion to a degree that is seen still to this day in America and in much of The West. In this regard, Manchester points out, as he does in many of his books, the idea that History is not static. That its importance is not bottled up in a far away land and in a time that does not serve any purpose to contemporary society. Manchester works more like a novelist than a historian as he overlooks anything that could serve as evidence to the contrary of ManchesterÃ¢â¬â¢s assertion that the average Medieval Mind was pathetic and weak. It seems that Manchester regards as much, anyone during that time that does not have the honor of being on his list of twenty eight notables who lived during the Middle Ages. For those who agree, A World Lit Only by Fire will serve to validate such opinions. For those who feel as though there always more occurring during that time than has the been the consensus among a small but consistent minority of historians, the book will have the reader responding out loud to some of the assertions that Manchester makes. But in the end, William Manchester is a entertaining and, for those that cannot forget his works on Churchill, a great writer. WORKS CITED Manchester, William.Ã The World Lit Only by Fire. The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance.  Manchester, William.Ã The World Lit Only by Fire. The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance. 8  Manchester, William.Ã The World Lit Only by Fire. The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance p. 112  Manchester, William.Ã The World Lit Only by Fire. The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance p. 91  Manchester, William.Ã The World Lit Only by Fire. The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance p. 294  Manchester, William.Ã The World Lit Only by Fire. The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance p. 33  Manchester, William.Ã The World Lit Only by Fire. The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance p. 225 How to cite William Manchester, Essay examples
Posted by India Shifflett at 8:47 AM
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Introduction Business environment is becoming competitive due to globalization caused by technological inventions. Firms have come to realize that in order to become competitive in the market they need to go beyond the local markets. This is one fact that management of Haier is well aware of and is planning on how to expand the market share for its refrigerators. There is need to enter into the emerging markets with this product.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on International Business in Emerging Economies specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of the most attractive destinations for this product is in South Africa (Pitt 2001, p. 58). This is not only because of the large size of the country, but also because of the massive growth of its economy. South Africa is one of the emerging economies, and the average purchasing power of the people of this country is relatively high as compared to other neighboring countries in the region. The emergence of the middle class in South Africa means that Haier refrigerators can easily find a huge market in this country. This is especially so in the major cities such as Cape Town and Johannesburg. However, this firm can only succeed in this market if it understands the external environmental forces that will affect its operations while in this country. The management should also be aware of the internal strengths and weaknesses in order to devise ways of managing the external market forces. This research will analyze the South African market environment. External Business Environment of South Africa Cultural, political, economic, and legal aspects of a country make up the external environment of a business. External business environment is very important because it will always determine success or failure of a firm. A business unit cannot survive in a hostile business environment. According to Cooper (2009, p. 78), external business environment always dictat es growth and development of a business. In order to understand business environment of South Africa, PESTEL analysis will be important. This economic analysis tool will help us understand South Africa as a business region, and its viability in supporting growth and development of this firm. PESTEL Analysis of South African Business Environment Political Aspects South Africa is one of the leading democracies in this region. This country became a republic in 1994 from the Dutch. The president is the head of state and government. Politically, South Africa has a very stable government. The country has experienced a long period of political stability that has made it conducive for business. It has a very stable government that is supportive of business operations.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Coulter (2009, p. 89), the political environment of South Africa has b een very supportive of business operations. This scholar says that the political class has created a clear distinction between politics and business environments. The transitions from one regime to another have been very peaceful, and none has ever had a serious negative effect on the business fraternity since its independence. Economic Aspects As was stated above, South Africa has the largest economy in Africa based on Gross Domestic Product. Although the GDP is always very important when analyzing the attractiveness of a country in sustaining a business, the most important factor is always the wealth held by individual citizens. This country is one of the wealthiest nations in Africa in average household wealth. This means that its citizens have strong purchasing power. This makes the country a very attractive market for firms interested in venturing into it. The report by Davida (2008, p. 78) also shows that this country is rated favorably in purchasing power parity by GDP in thi s region. This means that wealth of the nation is fairly spread. This increases the purchasing power of the country. South Africans do appreciate the need to save, but they also spend a good part of their income. It is important though, to understand the fact that this country has also been experiencing economic recession that has been affecting the world from time to time. The country was affected by the 2009 economic recession that hit the United States and other regions of the world. The South African government came up with various policies immediately the 2008/2009 economic recession ended. The government has endeavored to ensure that the economy of the country do not experience difficulties it faced. The Socio-Cultural Environment South Africa has one of the richest socio-cultural environments in the world. Devellis (2001, p. 69) says that South Africa has a very rich cultural heritage that makes it stand out among many other countries. The socio-cultural environment of this c ountry is diversified. This is because this country has people from all over the world. The people of South Africa cherish equality, and women have equal economic strength just as men. In this country, this firm should not segment the market based on gender. The country has been known for its ideals and declarations of rights of women. Based on religion, this country has several believers who are from different religions. The leading religion is Christianity. However, there are Muslims, Jews, Hindus, and Pagans among other African religions. All these religions have been co-existing peacefully and without any form of friction.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on International Business in Emerging Economies specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, each group has its own beliefs that make them unique in the market (Letavec 2006, p. 57). For instance, Muslims do not eat pork. Although their population is not very hig h in this country, they have an impact in the market. The management of Haier must therefore, be careful when segmenting the market. According to Clark (2000, p. 650), there is a unique character that makes the South African market different from others. The South Africans generally love leisure. They also like attractive products that symbolize love for life and for others. This is the reason why it is one of the leading markets for flowers in Africa. The country is also very sensitive when it comes to issues about colors. They have cultural beliefs about some specific colors. Each color has a specific attachment, and is therefore, suitable for different occasions. The Management of Haier must take a keen consideration when choosing colors for its products. This society is also very careful about diction. Every word has a special meaning. As a marketer of Haier, one would need to be very careful with the choice of word used during the promotional campaigns (Nagarajan 2005, p. 29). Any wrong usage of word may cost a firm its market share. The technological environment in this country is very dynamic. Technological inventions and innovations, especially in the field of communication have been the main challenge and strength of various firms at the same time. While some firms are left with nightmares of trying to guess what their competitors in the market are going to come up with overnight, some have used this technology to emerge as the leaders in the market. Technological changes are so unpredictable and firms are struggling to come terms with these changes. The dynamism of technology in this sector has forced some firms out of the market. Legal Aspects According to Goolnik (2006, p. 56), no firm can operate in an industry that has no clear laws and regulations to help in general governance. Laws and regulations are always enacted to help define the relationship between a firm and the government, a firm and the public, and a firm with other firms. This law sh ould be clear on various operational issues in order to ensure that operations of one firm do not affect that of another firm. Some governments always enact laws that may motivate growth of one industry, while impeding the growth of another country. Other laws may also be enacted to discourage foreign firms from investing in the country.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The government of South Africa has enacted laws that liberalize the economy. The laws have encouraged growth of the private sector through public-private partnership (Kanda 2011, p. 84). Legally, most firms have not faced major challenges. The laws that govern trade in South Africa have been very favorable to most firms. However, some firms have faced serious litigation cases for failure to follow some of the industry rules and regulations. Of importance to note is that this country is largely a Christian state. Most of the laws of this land are based on the morals and beliefs of Christianity. For this reason therefore, some businesses practices are not allowed in this country (Binder 2007, p. 84). Failure to follow the industry and national laws and regulation may not only lead to serious fines imposed by the government on the firm, but even a total closure of the firm. Haier should be aware of this. The government has clearly defined how firms should relate amongst themselves. Suc h issues as advertisements are closely regulated, with various agencies keenly monitoring content of the adverts. This is specifically so due to two main reasons. The first reason is to ensure that an advert for company A does not have a direct negative effect on products for company B. This is to create a healthy competitive environment where firms have respect for one another. Another reason for this regulation is viewers of the adverts who are below the age of majority. A standard language should be used when advertising in order to ensure that childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s mind is not polluted with contents meant for adults. However, given the nature of the product Haier is taking to this market, it may not face any serious challenge from this perspective of the law (Murch 2004, p. 48). The management of Haier only needs to understand how it needs to relate to the government, the public and other firms in this country. There are some environmental concerns that have legal implications. Sout h Africa is one of the emerging economies in the world. There are environmental agencies that have come out strongly to defend nature from any form of pollution. When operating in this country, the management of Haier should be aware of the laws that are enacted to protect the environment (Barker 2003, p. 89). Contravening these laws may result in litigation against the firm. This can cause serious financial consequences. Internal analysis of Haier Using SWOT Model SWOT analysis is always a very important tool that helps in determining the internal ability and weaknesses of the firm, and the opportunities and threats that are available in the external environment. This analysis will help in understanding this firm, and in knowing some of the factors that have propelled it to its current position in the market. Strengths and Weaknesses of the Company Haier Company has some special abilities that can be considered its main strength in the market. The ability of this firm to develop a variety of refrigerators of different sizes and for different purposes has earned it a massive ability to target various market segments. To help it succeed in this industry, this firm has come up with a quality control unit in all its subsidiaries in order to ensure that it delivers quality products to the customer (Chiou Droge 2006, p. 620). Ability to deliver quality service to the customer has made it develop a special niche in the market making its products popular across the world. The firm is also one of the first firms that embraced value chain management. Through this, the firm has been able to continue satisfying its customers at a reasonable cost. The ability of this firm to adopt the emerging technologies has been considered as strength by other firms. Haier refrigerator is one of its recent products that demonstrates the capacity of this firm to deliver special satisfaction to its customers by bringing products that are a little beyond the expectations of the market. D espite the above strengths for this firm, it has some weaknesses that have impeded its growth to a given degree. One of the main concerns that this firm has not addressed properly is the issue of the emerging technologies. LG and Samsung have successfully maintained their lead as the top manufacturers and distributors of refrigerators (Chaudhuri Holbrook 2001, 89). The main reason for this was the inability of this firm to adapt to the emerging technologies within the right time. Another thorny issue for this firm has been on environmental management. The components of the products of this firm are known to be very dangerous to the environment. Components of old refrigerators pose a serious threat to the environment. This firm has been criticized, alongside other firms, to be leading in the pollution of the environment. This firm is yet to come up with a clear structure on how it can manage environmental pollution caused by its wastes around the globe (Bruning 2002, p. 41). The fir m has claimed that it has been engaging in corporate social responsibility. However, this has not been enough to make the public believe its commitment to a cleaner environment. Opportunities and Threats In every industry, there are always opportunities and threats that a firm may come across in the external environment. Various opportunities exist for Haier in its operations in the South African market. One of the opportunities that this firm has had is an expansive and unexploited market in the third world countries. Most of the electronics firms have focused their effort on building a large base of loyal customers in the leading economies like the United States and the European markets (Andrzej Buchaman 2007, p. 98). This firm has managed to tap into the emerging markets in African and parts of Asia. The stable economic growth in the emerging economies means that there is increased opportunity for this firm to increase its sales in such countries as the South African markets and the neighboring regions. This growth of economy means that the consumers will always have enough to spend on luxurious goods such as the expensive Haier refrigerators. The market has developed an interesting trend where this firm is competing with Samsung for the market share of the refrigerators. The market has been experiencing a stiff competition between Haier refrigerators and Samsung refrigerators (Sirkin Jackson, 2005, p. 18). Although this may be considered as a threat, this competition has offered the two firms an opportunity to acquire a special niche in the industry, outsmarting some of the former industry giant like Sanyo. The emergent of an economically empowered youth around the world is also another opportunity that this firm has been able to exploit. In the IT industry, the main target market is the youth. With an economically empowered youth, this firm can generate many benefits through increased sales. There are threats that exist in this industry that is worth no ting. Technology is probably the main threat that this firm faces in this industry. Haier has used technology to reach its current position. It has managed to adapt to the emerging technologies at a gradual rate (Doladi 2007, p 218). However, it is a frightening trying to figure out what some of the competitors can do with this same technology. Any slowness in managing the emerging technologies can pose a serious threat to this firm. Another biggest threat that this firm faces is the stiff competition posed by rival firms. This industry is one of the most competitive industries in the world. Any slight mistake by the firm may result in a situation where its market share is taken over by other rival firms. Market Entry Mode According to Bird (2007, p. 221), it is important for a firm to have a clear strategy that it intends to use when getting into a new market. Haier should understand that the market forces in its home country are different from the forces in South Africa. It should find the best way through which it can get into the South African market with as minimal challenges as possible (McCarthy 2010, p. 36). One of the modes of entry can be direct market entry into this market. In this strategy, the firm will need to register with the relevant authorities is South Africa and start its operations in this country as an independent firm. Another alternative is to find exclusive distributers of its products in the market. In this approach, it will only need to coordinate with these distributers and supply them with its products. The distributers will be responsible for sale of the refrigerators in the South African Market. Alternatively, this firm can get into partnership with a South African firm in the electronic industry. With this partner, this firm can introduce its refrigerators into this country. Given the nature of this product and the level of market competition, direct market entry mode would be the most appropriate. The Organizational Strategy f or the Entry Direct market entry Strategy is appropriate because it would enable Haier to deal with the competition posed by competitors in a direct manner. To do this, the management of Haier should develop organizational strategy for this entry. The first step should be analysis of the market prior to the entry. This will enable the firm to understand what is needed in this market. After the survey, the management should form a team that will be responsible for managing this market (Bardes 2008, p. 187). This team should only include top managers because it would be appropriate to have host country nationals for other positions. The team should then develop market entry strategy that would help create a positive image of this firm in the market. This team must develop appropriate market proposition that would give it an advantage over its competitors. This may include positioning itself as an electronic firm that is environment friendly, besides being conscious of environmental fo rces. Human Resource Management Strategy According to Banutu (2004, p. 145), it is very important for the management of a firm to come up with an appropriate human resource management strategy when entering a new market. There are four options that Haier can use when staffing its new plant in South Africa. The first option may be to use parent country nationals, which would mean that it would come with employees from China. The second option is to have host country nationals meaning that it will hire South Africans at this new plant. The third option is to use third country national, which means that it will hire employees from other countries other than China and South Africa. The last option, which is the most appropriate, is to have a mix of the three strategies (Kousholt 2007, p. 37). Haier will employ top management from any other country, while junior employees would come from South Africa. Employing South Africans will help this firm in marketing because these employees alrea dy have an understanding of the market environment. These employees should be kept constantly motivated to ensure that they give out their best. Environmental Issues and Corporate Social Responsibility When the management has successfully made an entry into this new market, it would need to develop a positive relationship with the public. Gaining favorable public image would require this firm to engage in various activities that would endear it to the public. Corporate social responsibility offers a firm an opportunity to work with the public for the betterment of the public other than to generate profits for the firm (Baekdal 2006, p. 54). Given that the society has become very sensitive on issues concerning the environment, the management of Haier should consider engaging in activities focused on protecting the environment. This may include planting of trees, getting rid of electronic and plastic wastes from the environment or such other similar activities. This will help give a n ew positive image for this firm in the market. Conclusion It is apparent from the discussion above that Haier can make a successful entry into the South African market with its refrigerators. South Africa is one of the emerging economies in the world and it is one of the most attractive markets for this firm. However, Haier needs to understand the external environmental forces it may face when operating in this country. It needs to understand socio-cultural environment, political and economic factors of this country that may affect its operations. This firm may also need to understand its internal strengths and weaknesses that may affect its operations in this country. Direct market entry into the South African market is the most appropriate approach for this firm, and most of its employees, especially the mid-level managers and junior employees should be South Africans. Participation in corporate social responsibility will give this firm a good image in this new market. 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